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Branches of medicine

Branches of medicine

Medicine as a career has a variety of specializations; but focusing in the branches with more demand that help you as a future doctor to define your specialty, the list is as follow. Consider that depend of your country, some of the branches of medicine could get a difference in the names. In this sense we make a reference to the main branches offered in the majority of countries.

Basic sciences

In general the basic sciences are related to the study and to the training; receive by every student as a part of their medicine career.
  • Anatomy is the branch of medicine and biology which is concerned with the shape and structure of body and the relationship of its organs. Also related to morphology of animals and plants.
  • Biochemistry is the branch of chemistry studying the chemical behavior in living systems. It also applied to dentistry, veterinary medicine and pharmacology in which a biochemist could investigate a drug action.
  • Biostatistics, also referred as a biometry, it is the use of statistical tests to analyze biological data and the interpretation of its results.
  • Cytology or cell biology is the branch of science life that deals with the structure, composition, function of cells, and also the interaction between them in an environment in which they exists.
  • Embryology is the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms, from the ovum´s fertilization to the fetus stage.
  • Endocrinology is the branch of medicine and biology related to the specific secretions called hormones and their effect of the endocrine organs which include thyroid, adrenals, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and testes.
  • Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and control of diseases in populations within public health, causes by a virus, bacteria or some other factor.
  • Genetics is part of the biology and concern the study of genes, heredity and their effects on inheritance of specific traits and on other biological processes.
  • Histology is the branch of medicine and biology that study the microscopic structure of cells and tissues under a light microscope.
  • Immunology considered as the main branch of medical science that deals with all mechanics physiological of the biological integral defense of all organisms, called the immune system.
  • Microbiology is the science that studies microscopic organisms, specifically for them which are under the power of human eye.
  • Molecular biology is the branch of biology and chemistry and deals with the study molecular of the process developed in the organisms.
  • Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Actually is part of chemistry, engineering, mathematics, philosophy and psychology fields.
  • Nutrition is the study of dietary requirements for people. Know the composition of food will help to prevent health problems.
  • Pathology is the study of disease, its causes, mechanisms and effects on the organisms.
  • Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties and effects upon living organisms. Is related to biological effects causes by drugs on organisms.
  • Physiology is the branch of medicine and closely related to the anatomy, physiology deals with the activities and processes of living organisms, as well as mechanical and physical functions.
  • Toxicology is closely related to medicine, chemistry and biology, basically is the study of the nature, effects and detection of poisons and the treatment of poisoning.

Medical Specialties

Once students have concluded the medical school is common that they want to reinforce their studies following a specialty of medicine inside surgical, internal medicine, diagnostic or clinical specialties. Consider these common specialties around world-wide to take a final decision.
  • Diagnostic Specialties

    These specialties are generally take place inside a clinical laboratory, where investigation and screening procedures are realized also taking a count transfusion and the cell therapy.
    • Allergology concern the study of allergies and hypersensitivity disorder on immunology system.
    • Angiology is the study of circulatory and lymphatic system, their arteries, vases, veins and its diseases.
    • Cardiology deals with the disorders of the heart as a subspecialty of internal medicine and at the same time it is divided in congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease and electrophysiology.
    • Cellular pathology is the study of cellular alterations in disease.
    • Clinical chemistry is related with diagnosis by making biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids and tissues.
    • Clinical microbiology is concerned with the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
    • Clinical immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
    • Endocrinology as a subspecialty of internal medicine concern the diagnostic and treat of endocrine organs.
    • Gastroenterology is part of internal medicine and comprises the study of gastrointestinal tract whereby the digestive system, diseases and treatments.
    • Hematology is the study of blood diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.
    • Interventional radiology is an area of specialty within the field of radiology which uses various radiological techniques.
    • Nephrology is a branch of the internal medicine and study the function of kidney, treatments and disease that include dialysis and renal transplant.
    • Nuclear Medicine is a branch of medicine specializing within the field of radiology in the use of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
    • Ophtalmology is dealing with disorders and surgery of the visual pathways closely related to anatomy, physiology of the eye.
    • Paediatrics or pediatrics deals with the health care of children to adolescents´ average to 18 years old.
    • Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery is a branch of internal medicine and it concerns all operations in order to restore parts of body to look normal.
    • Transfusion medicine is related with the transfusion of blood and blood component, as well as the maintenance of a "blood bank".
    • Urology is inside surgical and internal specialty and are closely related to the nephrology, it study the diseases of the male reproductive system and the urinary tract.

  • Clinical Specialties

    As a part of medical specialties we can mention the main specialties considered world-wide.
    • Anesthesiology (AE) or anaesthesia (BE) an anesthesiologist administers anesthesia and monitors patients under anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures.
    • Dermatology is the branch of medicine and the unique specialty that join medical and surgery specialties. It deals with diseases and disorders of the skin and its appendages.
    • Emergency medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with care and treatment of a condition resulting from an accident or other urgent need.
    • Hospital medicine is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. Doctors whose principal professional focus is hospital medicine are called hospitalists.
    • Internal medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of many medical conditions for adult people.
    • Naturopathic medicine is a system of medicine that believes in the body's natural healing forces.
    • Neurology is the branch of science that deals with the structure, functioning and diseases of the nervous system.
    • Obstetrics and gynecology (often abbreviated as Ob/Gyn) is the field of medicine devoted to conditions specific to women.
    • Palliative care is an approach to life-threatening chronic illnesses, especially at the end of life.

Interdisciplinary fields

The interdisciplinary fields include sub-specialties of medicine. Consider the list below.
  • Aviation medicine applies medical knowledge to human activities to prevent diseases in pilots and aircrews as patients, in the aviation field.
  • Bioethics is the branch of ethics that studies moral values in the biomedical sciences.
  • Biomedical Engineering is a field that deals with the application of engineering principles to medical practice.
  • Clinical pharmacology is a field of medicine that studies the effects of drugs on people.
  • Conservation medicine is the study the connection between human and animal health, and environmental conditions.
  • Diving medicine (or hyperbaric medicine) is the avoidance and treatment of diving-related problems.
  • Forensic medicine is the branch of medical science that uses medical knowledge for legal purposes.
  • Keraunomedicine is a division of medical study pertaining to lightning injuries.
  • Medical informatics, medical computer science, medical information and eHealth are moderately recent fields that deal with the application of computers and information technology to medicine.
  • Nosology is the branch of medical science dealing with the classification of disease.
  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic variation underlying differential response to drugs.
  • Sports medicine deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, amateur and professional
  • Therapeutics is the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease.
  • Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international.