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Surgical specialties

Surgical specialties

The Surgical Specialties are the medical specialties that treat diseases or injuries, in which surgical training is one of the most complicated programs to assume, partially because of the dedication in time and lifestyle that a practitioner is obliged to make. A training surgeon will usually become a doctor, then train in basic surgical technique before studying advanced surgical technique in a particular specialty.

Cardiac surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery is the branch of medicine that deals with treatment of illnesses affecting organs inside the thorax (the chest). Cardiothoracic Surgery is one of the most difficult and exigent disciplines available to a physician who has decided to follow a surgical career.

General surgery

General surgery, in spite of its name, is a surgical specialty that deals with surgical treatment of abdominal organs, e.g. intestines including esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts.


Neurosurgery is the branch of medicine focused in the surgical treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord and nervous system.

Oral and maxillofacial surgery

In this field, the majority of operating time is used in the reconstruction of the faces and jaws of severely injured patients. It requires doctors trained in dentistry and medicine.

Otolaryngology (ENT)

Otolaryngology is a medical specialty that deals principally with illnesses and disorders affecting the ear, nose, and throat.

Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is the field of medicine that applies a number of surgical and nonsurgical techniques to vary the appearance and function of a person's body. Plastic surgeons work with burns and trauma victims, restoring or improving the appearance of body structures.

Trauma surgery

Trauma surgery involves fixing fractures, replacing joints and managing degenerative disorders.


Urology is the branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the urinary system as impotence and infertility and the management of diseases of the kidneys, bladder and prostate.

Calculate your BMI before your surgery

In some operations risk is very important to have a good BMI because it can increase the risk of complications. If you do not know your BMI, start by going to a BMI calculator to find out where you stand.

Elevated BMI has also been shown to complicate the surgical protocols. Often more portals are needed in arthroscopic surgery, longer incisions for open surgery, and the surgical times are longer for patients with higher BMI. The cost of surgery is also higher due to the longer surgical times as well as the use of specialized tools for larger patients. A higher BMI may be associated with greater surgical risks, including incisional hernia, poor wound healing and pneumonia.