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University of Minnesota (Medical School)




The mission of the University of Minnesota Medical School is to be a leader in enhancing the health of people through the education of skilled, compassionate, and socially responsible physicians. With two campuses in Duluth and the Twin Cities serving diverse populations in rural and urban Minnesota, the Medical School is dedicated to preeminent primary care medicine, exemplary specialty care, and innovative research.

If you are a student or considering entering the University of Minnesota Medical School, we are committed to preparing you for the best of all professions.

If you are a faculty member or considering becoming one of our outstanding researchers and physicians, we offer you the opportunity to participate in a rich environment and in the scientific revolutions of this new century.

If you are a patient in need of care, our faculty physicians will provide you with the best treatments and support available.

Our Medical School is thriving in the midst of exciting changes. The revolution in molecular medicine, genomics, and proteomics will have profound effects on how patients are diagnosed and treated. Digital technology also is transforming medicine. And changes in health care delivery systems are significantly impacting the way medicine is practiced.

Our Medical School embraces these shifts, anticipates future changes, and holds fast to those core values in medicine that will not change—compassion, understanding, and commitment.

Our Medical School is one of the top medical schools in the United States. With our diverse curriculum, we address health and wellness as well as respect for the individuality of each patient.

Our goal is to train doctors who understand and practice the science and technology of medicine and treat each patient as the unique individuals they are. We value partnership with patients and strive for the highest quality in how we practice medicine.

Minnesota is the first public medical school to offer a flexible M.D. program in which students entering in 2005 have the option of finishing medical school in as few as three and a half and as many as six years.

In addition, students will be charged for only 11 semesters of tuition, even if they elect to take more time to complete their degrees. By taking more time, students can take extra electives or explore several specialties, complete research, work in an underserved community here or abroad, or pursue an internship at one of Minnesota's medical device companies.

The Medical School provides the faculty and facilities for instruction of students in medicine. The primary goal of medical education is to produce physicians who have sound training in modern human biology and who have mastered the competencies requisite to entering graduate education in any of the medical specialties. Beyond Medical School and awarding of the M.D. degree, all graduates are obliged, by requirements for specialization or licensure, to undertake additional formal education or training. Beyond these formal programs are the continuing education activities in which individuals in practice must participate to keep abreast of developments in medicine. Much of the success of the continuum of medical education depends on individual responsibility and initiative. Therefore, to encourage such development in medical students, the concept of the student as an independent learner is emphasized in the curriculum.

The Medical School has a network of clinical affiliations in the Twin Cities and the state of Minnesota that provide quality care for Minnesota families and a comprehensive educational experience for our students and residents.

University of Minnesota Medical Center and University of Minnesota Children's Hospital, both divisions of Fairview, are the core teaching facilities on campus--where more than 400 full-time faculty provide clinical services. Many also teach and practice at affiliated hospitals in the community.

The University of Minnesota has launched new clinical research initiatives with its Office of Clinical Research, founded in August 2005. We seek significant funding to build a robust clinical research enterprise within the Medical School and the other schools, colleges, centers, and institutes of the Academic Health Center, to promote clinical research collaborations, and to train the next generation of clinical researchers.

The University of Minnesota also is a core partner in the Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics, which joins the University of Minnesota, the Mayo Clinic, and the state of Minnesota in collaborative research to improve human health. The state legislature has provided $38.7 million in research funding and space for studies that cannot be done by either the University or Mayo Clinic alone. Partnership dollars support joint research projects in cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, heart health, obesity, and other areas.

Medical School setting: The Medical School is part of the University’s Academic Health Center with five other health sciences colleges—pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public health, and veterinary medicine. The AHC is one of the four most comprehensive academic medical centers in the nation. The University of Minnesota was founded to serve the well-being of the people of Minnesota. It now is a major research institution renowned for its engineering, business, health-care, and law programs.


School name:University of MinnesotaMedical School
Address:420 Delaware St. S.E.
Zip & city:MN 55455 Minnesota
Phone:612-626-4949
Web:http://www.med.umn.edu
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Medical School Courses


YEAR 1 COURSES

- Biochemistry, Molecular & Cellular Biology : Gives an integrated view of biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and genetics. Included are clinical correlation sessions dealing with specific diseases relevant to the lecture topics.

- Gross Anatomy : This course is a study of human gross anatomy with emphasis upon function and laboratory dissection. Certain aspects of human embryology are included to provide a developmental framework for understanding normal anatomy and normal anatomical variations. Gross anatomy lecture presentations generally provide background and orientation for the laboratory. The lectures also cover important functional and clinical correlations of anatomy.

- Human Behavior : Human Behavior is a 27-hour course taught in the latter part of the first year. This course focuses on growth and development, stress and coping, sleep physiology and behavior, the neurobiology of memory, language, emotion, and attention, medical sociology, and family systems.

- Human Genetics : Techniques used in genetic analysis, mechanisms of inheritance, and applications of medical genetics.

- Human Histology : This lecture-laboratory course covers the light and electron microscopic anatomy of the body, and is divided into two parts: The first half and midterm exam primarily cover cell biology, methods of morphology, tissues, and tissue biology; the second half and final exam cover the functional histology of organ systems. Histology is the compliment to gross anatomy; it puts biochemistry and molecular biology in the context of cell structure & function; it provides the foundation for your future understanding of pathology and pathophysiology.

- Human Nutrition : An introduction to principles of nutrition; selected topics from the broad multi-disciplinary field of nutrition will be used to introduce key basic concepts and to illustrate its importance in medicine.

- Human Sexuality : Prepares medical students to render effective primary care for patients with sexual concerns. Manditory two-day sexual attitude reassessment seminar and four symposia involving case presentations, panel discussions, and media presentations. Primary care will consist basically of providing patients with information and helpful suggestions and refer patients who require more specialized forms of health care. The Course is an introduction to basic and clinical skills that will be part of every physician's armamentarium regardless of specialty. Keeping these goals in mind, it is not expected that students will become competent "sex therapists" after completing the Course. Further learning experiences are available on a clinical elective basis.

- Microbiology : Basic and clinical human immunology and medical microbiology. Molecular and cellular basis of immune responses and tolerance, immunologic disease, serology, antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, and basic and medical bacteriology, parasitology, mycology, and virology.

- Neuroscience : The objective of this course is to provide a contemporary understanding of the organization and function of the human nervous system. This knowledge is intended to serve as a basis for understanding the effects of damage to the nervous system as seen in clinical medicine.

- Pathology : This general pathology segment introduces the student to the general principles, including cellular injury, inflammation and repair, immunopathologic processes, abnormal hemodynamics, metabolic diseases, and neoplasia. Examples of specific diseases are used to illustrate these principles.

- Pharmacology : Lectures covering the principles of pharmacology. How drugs are administered, handled by the body and the systems that they act upon are presented. Dosing pharmacokinetics, and metabolism are included. Signal transduction, eicosanoid agents and actions of drugs on the autonomic nervous system are also covered. Other topics are development of therapeutic agents, drug interactions, and special populations.

- Physiology : Human Physiology course for first-year medical students, as well as physical therapy and graduate students. This course covers muscle, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and renal physiology. An integrative, sytems approach is used and normal function is emphasized.

- Physician & Patient 1 : Physician and Patient 1 is the first course in history and physical exam which spans the first two years of medical school. This course emphasizes the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are critical to starting a career as a physician. Students become familiar with the student-physician role and the physician-patient relationship, learning basic interviewing skills, learn how to take a medical history, and learn the techniques of physical examination.

- Physician & Society 1 & 2 : Fall semester introduces community aspects of medical care, including professionalism, biomedical ethics, and cultural and ethnic diversity. Lectures and tutorials.

YEAR TWO COURSES

- Pharmacology : Begins coverage of the main classes of drugs used to treat disease. The course provides an in-depth understanding of fundamental principles of rational drug therapy. Emphasis is on the mechanisms of action, absorption, distribution, biotransfor-mation, excretion, and clinical use of drugs.
Lectures covering the principles of pharmacology. How drugs are administered, handled by the body and the systems that they act upon are presented. Dosing pharmacokinetics, and metabolism are included. Signal transduction, eicosanoid agents and actions of drugs on the autonomic nervous system are also covered. Other topics are development of therapeutic agents, drug interactions, and special populations.

- Systemic Pathology : Diseases are presented in the context of the organ systems; namely, cardiac, respiratory, renal, female and male reproductive, neurologic, hematologic, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and orthopaedic.

- Laboratory Medicine : Introduction to the practice of clinical laboratory medicine, including the principles of selected tests and the judicious use of the clinical laboratory.

- Physician & Patient 2 : Physician and Patient 2 is a required course in Year 2. In this course students practice taking a medical history and doing a complete physical. In addition, they do complete write-ups of each case that they do. The students are in tutorials, one faculty to four students with tutor observation and tutor demonstration. The course is 10 weeks long with a Final Practical Exam in the 11th or 12th week. There are three workshops scheduled throughout the 10 weeks designed to expand the student physical exam skills in the area of cardiology, pulmonology and neurology. The students are expected to do complete history and physicals with the goal of becoming efficient and accurate in gathering clinical information at the bedside.

- Physician & Patient 3 : Students will rotate through 4-week periods on Family Medicine, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics. Students will build on clinical skills learned in PAP 1 and 2. In this course students use basic science and organ system knowledge to identify pathological findings. In turn, students enrich their organ system course knowledge by observing how the pathophysiology of disease processes is manifested in individual patients. Additionally, students gain experience in effectively organizing and communicating data obtained from patients in both written and oral forms. Students learn to integrate diagnostic information to develop patient problem lists and reasoned differential diagnoses. Treatment and management plans are not the foci of this course but will be important in clerkships during years three and four.

- Physician & Society 3 & 4 : The Physician and Society is a course about the context of care. Contextual issues - the "society" part of thiscourse - such as cultural dynamics, societal ethics, the ever changing political and economic climate of health care delivery, and soon, have a bearing on patients' health and the ability of physicians to deliver high quality care. This course is intended to introduce you to these contextual issues and how they affect health.

- Cardiovascular Pathophysiology : Cardiovascular Pathophysiology encompasses the study of the heart and the vascular system in health and disease. A review of your first year's material on basic cardiac structure and function will aid you in learning about the disease processes that afflict the cardiovascular system. Basic pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease, as well as specific diseases will be discussed. Firm knowledge of cardiovascular physiology and the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms will provide you with the background to approach patients in your clinical years of training. This course should serve as a bridge between the basic physiology you had last year and the clinical care of the patients on the hospital wards next year.

- Respiratory : The Year Two Respiratory segment of Pathophysiology consists of a series of six weeks of diverse learning activities that are designed to illuminate the major topics of pulmonary medicine. The activities are founded on your previously acquired knowledge from Year One. They should, in turn, provide you with a firm foundation to approach clinical management of patients in your Third and Fourth Year rotations.

- Psyche : Psyche, a 20-hour course on specific mental disorders, is given in the second year in conjunction with neurology, respiratory, cardiovascular and the pharmacology of drugs affecting the central nervous system. The epidemiology, descriptive psychopathology, etiology, and prognosis of the major child and adult mental disorders are presented. The focus is on the chronic, severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, manic-depression, and alcoholism, which have an early onset and will affect as much as 20 percent of the population. Consideration of treatment is limited to elucidation of etiology. Six hours of the course are taught in a small-group format (12-15 students), which uses videotaped examples of psychopathology.

- Bones, Joints, & Connective Tissue : The course presents the core knowledge base related to disorders of the Musculoskeletal System and Autoimmune Disease. This course includes lectures, small group sessions and computer on-line cases for self study. The Small Group Sessions include an advanced physical diagnosis module and two sessions of Bell Ringers - Objective Structured Clinical teaching stations for practice using the musculoskeletal knowledge base. Four interactive case discussions on line provide for independent self-study and practice. The departments of orthopaedic surgery, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and rheumatology have re-designed this course for an integrated presentation of the core knowledge base. All in-class activities rely on the independent study you are expected to do in preparation for each these classes.

- Skin : Much of Skin Pathophysiology provides translational information that bridges basic science and disease states. For many medical students this will be the only dermatology training they will receive, so our course strives to provide good basic teaching of common skin disorders.

- Endocrine / Reproduction : The course emphasizes these major themes:
* Specific biological effects result from hormone-receptor interaction in target tissues. We will examine normal and deranged feedback loops and the use of feedback loops to monitor hormone effectiveness and endocrine therapy
* Regulation of energy (carbohydrate and fat) metabolism
* Growth, sexual development and reproduction

- Gut : The overall objective of the Gut segment is to present the pathophysiology of hepatic and gastrointestinal disease.

- Blood : Students will use the process of clinical reasoning to understand blood pathophysiology. For each pathophysiological principle, students will be able to understand how patient complaints and findings are explained by the pathophysiology of the underlying process. In addition, students will be able to identify which laboratory tests are informative in interpreting pathophysiology and will be able to interpret results of such tests in explaining pathophysiology.

- Infectious Disease : Students will learn the basic principles of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, including virulence factors of the pathogens, defense mechanisms of the host, and the host-pathogen interaction. Common bacterial pathogens and major sites of infection will be reviewed.

YEARS 3 AND 4

Students in Years 3 and 4 at the University of Minnesota Medical School devote the majority of their time to clinical care of patients. You will be a member of the team providing care to patients; provide direct patient care and perform procedures under supervision; and take part in educational activities, programs and conferences in clinical medicine and basic science that apply to clinical care. You will be an important member of the health care team to ensure the patient receives optimal care. You have the opportunity to take rotations/courses/clerkships to help you select a specialty in which to receive additional training by taking a residency after graduation. Students in Years 3 and 4 have tremendous flexibility in their schedule to maximize educational opportunities, to select a career specialty, and to create life-long learning habits.

During Years 3 and 4, students master effective, compassionate communication with patients and their families; obtain pertinent histories and perform complete physical examinations; assess problems with differential diagnoses and diagnostic testing; and develop management plans. In addition, students will develop a commitment to lifelong learning and learning independently as well as using evidence-based medicine, and utilizing appropriate medical and electronic resources.

COURSES:

* Medicine I : This course is the first of two required six-week rotations in internal medicine (Med 7-500, 7-501). Each course is considered as part of a continuum in clinical experience. Med 7-500 emphasizes diagnostic approach to patient problems and acquisition of core knowledge and skills. Students will be part of a patient care team and evaluate and follow at least two new patients per week. Required conferences and tutorial sessions related to the student's patients and to basic problems in internal medicine are organized for students at each of the sites. Recommended readings coincide with student conferences and tutorials. Students are required to attend Introduction to Clinical Knowledge Resources Program, and self-directed learning tools are available for students' use.

* Medicine II : This course is designed to complete the required 12 weeks of experience in internal medicine begun in Medicine 7-500. Medicine 7-501 is a "sub-intership" in which students take direct responsibility for patient care. Therapeutic decision making and care planning are emphasized. Students will be part of a patient care team and assume responsibility for the evaluation and care of three new patients per week. Acute care tutorials with learning objectives and suggested readings are an important part of the course. Self-directed learning tools are available

* Psychiatry : This course is a requirement for all third year medical students. Its goal is to prepare medical students to recognize, diagnose, and care for patients with psychiatric disorders encountered in most medical practices. At the beginning of the course students will be given an outline of specific course objectives plus other orientation materials. Students will be assigned to work with interdisciplinary teams which will aid the student in meeting course objectives. Students will be assigned patients and will follow both in-hospital and outpatients. They will attend teaching rounds and a variety of teaching conferences. They will be given a series of lectures/discussions at their individual teaching sites. Each student will be required to write a brief paper concerning a patient-related problem.

* Obstetrics/Gynecology : This is the core clinical course in Ob/Gyn for Years Three and Four medical students consisting of a six-week experience in obstetrics and gynecology. All students will meet weekly for Problem-Based Learning sessions addressing clinical aspects involved in common obstetric and gynecological problems. Students will participate in clinical procedures, deliveries and surgical operations. Access to learning about elective termination of pregnancy procedures is available at Regions Hospital. Other sites are available and need to be arranged with the Course director and clerkship coordinator during your rotation. Students will be expected to take night and weekend call approximately every fourth night.

* Pediatrics : The Pediatric 7501 externship is designed to provide basic pediatric skills and knowledge necessary for all students, no matter what field of medicine they select. Students will develop a basic understanding of normal growth and development, the influence of the environment on health, the impact of hospitalization on the child/family unit, and basic principles of common diseases affecting children. Students will be assigned patients on wards, newborn nurseries, and in clinics. Teaching rounds and conferences will review work-ups, discuss problems, and evaluate progress.

* Surgery : In addition to competence in the course objectives, it is expected that the students will attend clinical departmental conferences, laboratory exercises, team discussions and group seminars. Recommended textbooks for the rotation: Way: Current Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment, 11th edition, 1996, Sabiston and Lyerly, Essentials of Surgery, 2nd edition, 1994. A handbook of core topics, readings, and oral exam questions is provided at the beginning of each period.

* Neurology : The goals of the neurology externship are to increase clinical skills in diagnosing and treating neurologic illnesses, to stimulate interest in clinical neurosciences, and to increase awareness of the role of the neurologist. It is hoped that upon completion of the course the student will be familiar with common neurological disorders and will have a sense for when neurologic consultation is appropriate.

- Primary Care Clerkship
* Family Practice Clinic : This elective is offered at all the University of Minnesota-affiliated Twin Cities Residency Programs in Family Medicine and selected other local programs. This elective provides students the opportunity to experience the full spectrum of Family Medicine. All efforts will be made to place the student at the program of their choice. The student will work with Family Medicine faculty physicians and Family Medicine residents in all the facets of Family Medicine care including: office, inpatient hospital service, labor and delivery, overnight call, procedures and, where applicable, nursing home rounds or home visits. Although not required, it is highly recommended that students have first completed the Primary Care Clerkship or equivalent and schedule this elective in the Spring of Year 3 or later. Students are expected to take both inpatient medicine and obstetrical call at a frequency of approximately one night per week during which they will remain in the hospital overnight.

* Surgical Subspecialties :

- Neurosurgery : During the course, the student will evaluate patients in the outpatient clinic. Students will learn about basic disease processes and are encouraged to spend time in the operating room observing neurosurgical procedures. Medical students will also participate in daily teaching rounds and should attend most regularly scheduled conferences held within the department. The Duluth site offers an experience in community neurosurgery with time spent in the emergency room, inpatient setting, and office practice.

- Orthopaedic Surgery : This must be considered a brief survey course with exposure to a large number of patients, rather than a didactic and highly structured course. Instruction will be given by audiovisual technique, conference, and seminars, in addition to teaching primarily in the outpatient clinic. There will be opportunities for participation in the inpatient service and in surgery for those students interested in this additional experience. To round out the somewhat limited experience inherent in a three week rotation, independent study of the text, Disorders and Disease of the Musculoskeletal System, by Robert B. Salter, is strongly recommended.

- Otolaryngology : This required course will include clinical experiences in the specialty and formal interactive lecture presentations emphasizing primary care problems related to the field. Students may choose two 2-week rotations in different specialties or one 4-week rotation in one specialty.
Students will see patients during their evaluation, participate in their care, and observe major head, neck, otologic or reconstructive procedures.

- Urology : The goal of the two-week Urologic Surgery Externship is to provide students with basic principles of Urology that they are likely to see and encounter in a general medical practice. Pediatric and adult urology are available every two-week rotation. Included in pediatric urology are subjects such as the work-up of a neonatal abdominal mass, posterior urethral valves, testicular torsion, UTIs and enuresis. Subjects in adult urology include urologic emergencies, infections, hematuria, stones, prostate cancer, and erectile dysfunction. At the completion of the rotation the student should be able to read an IVP, place Foley catheters, and read a urinalysis.

* Emergency Medicine : Report first day to the U of M for general orientation followed by your site specific orientation that day. Orientation is required for the course, if you are unable to meet this requirement please contact the course director. We will contact you via email with details for the course and orientation"
The student will have the opportunity to work with Emergency Medicine faculty and residents who for direction. Under their supervision, the student is expected to act as the primary physician for Emergency Department (ED) patients, including initial assessment, performance of minor procedures, interpretation of lab and x-ray, and preparation for admission to inpatient services. The student will also have the opportunity to observe critical resuscitations. The student will be assigned a rotating schedule of clinical hours, including day, evening, nighttime, and weekend shifts

* Anesthesiology : The student will be exposed to the anesthesia care of perioperative patients in a major tertiary care institution (Fairview University Medical Center). Students will learn from the care provided to all types of surgical patients from the faculty and residents in the Department of Anesthesiology. The perioperative care experience will include procedures involving all surgeries including solid organ transplantation, critically ill patients, and children with congenital anomalies and hereditary disorders. The rotation is divided into one-week segments; the student may select sub-specialty areas. Daily student/staff seminars cover introduction to general anesthesia, skills lab, perioperative cardiovascular physiology/hemodynamics, clinicalular blocking agents, pulmonary ventilation, and physiology, physiology and treatment of pain, and care of patients in the PACU. The student will spend the majority of his/her time in the operating room. This controlled environment is an excellent location for teaching and demonstration of essential life-support skills. Night or weekend call are not required.

* Dermatology : Most of the teaching and learning will be accomplished by daily patient care activities at one of the three affiliated hospitals. Students will participate in the regularly scheduled weekly didactic conferences in the department. Independent study is expected and encouraged. This elective will be useful to students planning a career in a primary care specialty or dermatology.

* Ophthalmology : Nine lectures, one each on neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, the red eye, glaucoma, ocular trauma, medical ophthalmology, ophthalmic surgery, the eye exam, and practical sessions are planned during the first two days of the rotation. Attendance at these sessions is required.

* Rehabilitation Medicine : This course is designed to acquaint the fourth-year student with the outpatient evaluation and management of both children and adults with disabilities. The students will assist in designing their rotation according to their interests. A wide range of clinical experiences are offered. This rotation includes: General Adult and Pediatric Rehabilitation Clinics; electrodiagnostic evaluations of patients; Botulinum toxin Clinic for management of spastic dystonia; Neuromuscular and Muscular Dystrophy Association Clinics; Wound Healing Clinic; Amputee Clinic; Spina Bifida Clinic; Chronic Pain Clinic. When available, participation in community outreach clinics is also encouraged. The student will also be encouraged to spend time observing the clinical practice of rehabilitation allied health professionals (i.e., physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, etc.). Weekly didactic sessions on various rehabilitation topics are available to the student. One student presentation will be required per three week rotation.
The learning experiences provided occur frequently on a one-to-one basis between the student-physician and a staff member. Topics are widely varied and include, but are not limited to: cardiac rehabilitation; sprains and strains; supportive bandaging; prescribing and training for crutches, canes, and wheelchairs; evaluation of impaired gait; evaluation and treatment of pain (i.e., shoulder, back, carpal tunnel syndrome); amputees and prosthetics; spinal cord injury; stroke; brain injury; developmental disorders; muscular dystrophies; cerebral palsy and spina bifida.

* Radiology : This course presents an overview of the various imaging modalities and image interpretation. Lectures cover fundamentals of image interpretation, nuclear medicine, computerized tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Individual rotations provide an opportunity to observe the procedures and read films with staff and residents. Emphasis is on normal anatomy and basic pathologic patterns.

* Therapeutic Radiology : This course is designed not only for those students who plan to go into radiation therapy, but also for those who plan to go into a field such as family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics, or surgery, where oncologic patients may be part of their practice. It provides training in clinical oncology, especially the diagnosis, disposition, and care of patients with cancer. The student will attend all departmental and interdepartmental functions including follow-up clinics, new patient oncology conference, etc. The program will be geared to give the extern direct patient contact, with intensive teaching by residents and staff. Lectures on basic radiology and radiation physics will provide supplemental teaching. There will be no night call.

Between 30 and 40 entering Year 3 students are selected for the very popular and educational Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP). These students spend nine months (36 credits) of Year 3 with a primary care preceptor in a practice in a Greater Minnesota community and become an integral and valued member of the team providing care to patients.

Year 3 and 4 students have a wide variety of elective courses - nearly 200 from nineteen departments - from which to choose rotations/clerkships, ranging in length from two to six weeks. Elective courses can be taken in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Duluth, other areas of the country (perhaps at a future residency site), or internationally provided a preceptor is available. Many students take up to 12 weeks in research for credit (non-direct patient care) as part of the 24 credits/weeks of electives. Other students take additional international electives.

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